Tris's Book PDF Free Download

The leading character in The Divergent Series Who is brave, selfless, and intelligent. Tris, or tris (hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or known during medical use as tromethamine or THAM, is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH 2) 3 CNH 2. It is extensively used in biochemistry and molecular biology as a component of buffer solutions such as in TAE and TBE buffers, especially for solutions of nucleic acids.

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Tris
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
TRIS, Tris, Tris base, Tris buffer, Trizma, Trisamine, THAM, Tromethamine, Trometamol, Tromethane, Trisaminol
Identifiers
  • 77-86-1 (free base)
  • 1185-53-1 (hydrochloride)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
  • ChEMBL1200391
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard
KEGG
  • D00396
RTECS number
UNII
  • 023C2WHX2V
  • 383V75M34E (hydrochloride)
  • Key: LENZDBCJOHFCAS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Key: LENZDBCJOHFCAS-UHFFFAOYAN
  • OCC(N)(CO)CO
Properties
C4H11NO3
Molar mass121.136 g·mol−1
AppearanceWhite crystalline powder
Density1.328g/cm3
Melting point>175-176 °C (448-449 K)
Boiling point 219 °C (426 °F; 492 K)
~50 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Acidity (pKa)8.07 (conjugate acid)
Pharmacology
B05BB03 (WHO) B05XX02 (WHO)
Hazards
Main hazardsIrritant
Safety data sheetExternal MSDS
R-phrases(outdated)
S-phrases(outdated)
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash pointNon-flammable
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
verify (what is ?)
Infobox references

Tris, or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or known during medical use as tromethamine or THAM, is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2)3CNH2. It is extensively used in biochemistry and molecular biology as a component of buffer solutions[1] such as in TAE and TBE buffers, especially for solutions of nucleic acids. It contains a primary amine and thus undergoes the reactions associated with typical amines, e.g. condensations with aldehydes. Tris also complexes with metal ions in solution.[2] In medicine, tromethamine is occasionally used as a drug, given in intensive care for its properties as a buffer for the treatment of severe metabolic acidosis in specific circumstances.[3][4] Some medications are formulated as the 'tromethamine salt' including hemabate (carboprost as trometamol salt), and 'ketorolac trometamol'.[5]

Buffering features[edit]

The conjugate acid of tris has a pKa of 8.07 at 25 °C, which implies that the buffer has an effective pH range between 7.1 and 9.1 (pKa ± 1) at room temperature.

Buffer details[edit]

  • In general, as temperature decreases from 25 °C to 5 °C the pH of a tris buffer will increase an average of 0.03 units per degree. As temperature rises from 25 °C to 37 °C, the pH of a Tris buffer will decrease an average of 0.025 units per degree.[6]
  • In general, a 10-fold increase in tris buffer concentration will lead to a 0.05 unit increase in pH and vice versa.[6]
  • Silver-containing single-junction pH electrodes (e.g., silver chloride electrodes) are incompatible with tris since an Ag-tris precipitate forms which clogs the junction. Double-junction electrodes are resistant to this problem, and non-silver containing electrodes are immune.

Buffer inhibition[edit]

  • Tris inhibits a number of enzymes,[7][8] and therefore should be used with care when studying proteins.
  • Tris can also inhibit enzyme activity via chelation of metal ions.[2]

Preparation[edit]

Tris Restaurant In The Woodlands Tx

Tris is prepared industrially by the exhaustive condensation of nitromethane with formaldehyde under basic conditions (i.e. repeated nitroaldol reactions) to produce the intermediate (HOCH2)3CNO2, which is subsequently hydrogenated to give the final product.[9]

Tris's Book PDF Free Download

Uses[edit]

The useful buffer range for tris (7–9) coincides with the physiological pH typical of most living organisms. This, and its low cost, make tris one of the most common buffers in the biology/biochemistry laboratory. Tris is also used as a primary standard to standardize acid solutions for chemical analysis.

Tris is used to increase permeability of cell membranes.[10] It is a component of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.[11]

Medical[edit]

Tris (usually known as THAM in this context) is used as alternative to sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of metabolic acidosis.[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Gomori, G., Preparation of Buffers for Use in Enzyme Studies. Methods Enzymology., 1, 138-146 (1955).
  2. ^ abFISCHER, Beda E.; HARING, Ulrich K.; TRIBOLET, Roger; SIGEL, Helmut (1979). 'Metal Ion/Buffer Interactions. Stability of Binary and Ternary Complexes Containing 2-Amino-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate (ATP)'. European Journal of Biochemistry. Wiley. 94 (2): 523–530. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1979.tb12921.x. ISSN0014-2956. PMID428398.
  3. ^Stanley, David; Tunnicliffe, William (June 2008). 'Management of life-threatening asthma in adults'. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain. 8 (3): 95–99. doi:10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkn012. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  4. ^Hoste, Eric A.; Colpaert, Kirsten; Vanholder, Raymond C.; Lameire, Norbert H.; De Waele, Jan J.; Blot, Stijn I.; Colardyn, Francis A. (May 2005). 'Sodium bicarbonate versus THAM in ICU patients with mild metabolic acidosis'. Journal of Nephrology. 18 (3): 303–307. ISSN1121-8428. PMID16013019.
  5. ^BNF 73 March-September 2017. British Medical Association, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. London. 21 March 2017. ISBN978-0857112767. OCLC988086079.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ ab'Sigma tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane; Tris Technical Bulletin No. 106B'(PDF). Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  7. ^Desmarais, WT; et al. (2002). 'The 1.20 Å resolution crystal structure of the aminopeptidase from Aeromonas proteolytica complexed with Tris: A tale of buffer inhibition'. Structure. 10 (8): 1063–1072. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(02)00810-9. PMID12176384.
  8. ^Ghalanbor, Z; et al. (2008). 'Binding of Tris to Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase can affect its starch hydrolysis activity'. Protein Pept. Lett. 15 (2): 212–214. doi:10.2174/092986608783489616. PMID18289113.
  9. ^Markofsky, Sheldon, B. (15 October 2011). 'Nitro Compounds, Aliphatic'. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 24. p. 296. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_401.pub2. ISBN978-3527306732.Missing or empty title= (help)
  10. ^Irvin, R.T.; MacAlister, T.J.; Costerton, J.W. (1981). 'Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane Buffer Modification of Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Permeability'. J. Bacteriol.145 (3): 1397–1403. doi:10.1128/JB.145.3.1397-1403.1981. PMC217144. PMID7009585.
  11. ^https://www.modernatx.com/covid19vaccine-eua/eua-fact-sheet-recipients.pdf
  12. ^Kallet, RH; Jasmer RM; Luce JM; et al. (2000). 'The treatment of acidosis in acute lung injury with tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM)'. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 161 (4): 1149–1153. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.161.4.9906031. PMID10764304.
  13. ^Hoste, EA; Colpaert, K; Vanholder, RC; Lameire, NH; De Waele, JJ; Blot, SI; Colardyn, FA (2005). 'Sodium bicarbonate versus THAM in ICU patients with mild metabolic acidosis'. Journal of Nephrology. 18 (3): 303–7. PMID16013019.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tris&oldid=1032244758'
(Redirected from Trometamol)
Tris
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
TRIS, Tris, Tris base, Tris buffer, Trizma, Trisamine, THAM, Tromethamine, Trometamol, Tromethane, Trisaminol
Identifiers
  • 77-86-1 (free base)
  • 1185-53-1 (hydrochloride)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
  • ChEMBL1200391
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard
KEGG
  • D00396
RTECS number
UNII
  • 023C2WHX2V
  • 383V75M34E (hydrochloride)
  • Key: LENZDBCJOHFCAS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Key: LENZDBCJOHFCAS-UHFFFAOYAN
  • OCC(N)(CO)CO
Properties
C4H11NO3
Molar mass121.136 g·mol−1
AppearanceWhite crystalline powder
Density1.328g/cm3
Melting point>175-176 °C (448-449 K)
Boiling point 219 °C (426 °F; 492 K)
~50 g/100 mL (25 °C)
Acidity (pKa)8.07 (conjugate acid)
Pharmacology
B05BB03 (WHO) B05XX02 (WHO)
Hazards
Main hazardsIrritant
Safety data sheetExternal MSDS
R-phrases(outdated)
S-phrases(outdated)
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash pointNon-flammable
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
verify (what is ?)
Infobox references

Tris, or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or known during medical use as tromethamine or THAM, is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2)3CNH2. It is extensively used in biochemistry and molecular biology as a component of buffer solutions[1] such as in TAE and TBE buffers, especially for solutions of nucleic acids. It contains a primary amine and thus undergoes the reactions associated with typical amines, e.g. condensations with aldehydes. Tris also complexes with metal ions in solution.[2] In medicine, tromethamine is occasionally used as a drug, given in intensive care for its properties as a buffer for the treatment of severe metabolic acidosis in specific circumstances.[3][4] Some medications are formulated as the 'tromethamine salt' including hemabate (carboprost as trometamol salt), and 'ketorolac trometamol'.[5]

Tris' S Book Pdf Free Download Windows

Tris's Book PDF Free Download

Buffering features[edit]

The conjugate acid of tris has a pKa of 8.07 at 25 °C, which implies that the buffer has an effective pH range between 7.1 and 9.1 (pKa ± 1) at room temperature.

Buffer details[edit]

  • In general, as temperature decreases from 25 °C to 5 °C the pH of a tris buffer will increase an average of 0.03 units per degree. As temperature rises from 25 °C to 37 °C, the pH of a Tris buffer will decrease an average of 0.025 units per degree.[6]
  • In general, a 10-fold increase in tris buffer concentration will lead to a 0.05 unit increase in pH and vice versa.[6]
  • Silver-containing single-junction pH electrodes (e.g., silver chloride electrodes) are incompatible with tris since an Ag-tris precipitate forms which clogs the junction. Double-junction electrodes are resistant to this problem, and non-silver containing electrodes are immune.

Buffer inhibition[edit]

  • Tris inhibits a number of enzymes,[7][8] and therefore should be used with care when studying proteins.
  • Tris can also inhibit enzyme activity via chelation of metal ions.[2]

Preparation[edit]

Tris is prepared industrially by the exhaustive condensation of nitromethane with formaldehyde under basic conditions (i.e. repeated nitroaldol reactions) to produce the intermediate (HOCH2)3CNO2, which is subsequently hydrogenated to give the final product.[9]

Uses[edit]

The useful buffer range for tris (7–9) coincides with the physiological pH typical of most living organisms. This, and its low cost, make tris one of the most common buffers in the biology/biochemistry laboratory. Tris is also used as a primary standard to standardize acid solutions for chemical analysis.

Tris is used to increase permeability of cell membranes.[10] It is a component of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.[11]

Tris's Book PDF Free Download

Medical[edit]

Tris (usually known as THAM in this context) is used as alternative to sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of metabolic acidosis.[12][13]

See also[edit]

Tris' S Book Pdf Free Download Free

References[edit]

  1. ^Gomori, G., Preparation of Buffers for Use in Enzyme Studies. Methods Enzymology., 1, 138-146 (1955).
  2. ^ abFISCHER, Beda E.; HARING, Ulrich K.; TRIBOLET, Roger; SIGEL, Helmut (1979). 'Metal Ion/Buffer Interactions. Stability of Binary and Ternary Complexes Containing 2-Amino-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Tris) and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate (ATP)'. European Journal of Biochemistry. Wiley. 94 (2): 523–530. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1979.tb12921.x. ISSN0014-2956. PMID428398.
  3. ^Stanley, David; Tunnicliffe, William (June 2008). 'Management of life-threatening asthma in adults'. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain. 8 (3): 95–99. doi:10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkn012. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  4. ^Hoste, Eric A.; Colpaert, Kirsten; Vanholder, Raymond C.; Lameire, Norbert H.; De Waele, Jan J.; Blot, Stijn I.; Colardyn, Francis A. (May 2005). 'Sodium bicarbonate versus THAM in ICU patients with mild metabolic acidosis'. Journal of Nephrology. 18 (3): 303–307. ISSN1121-8428. PMID16013019.
  5. ^BNF 73 March-September 2017. British Medical Association, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. London. 21 March 2017. ISBN978-0857112767. OCLC988086079.CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ ab'Sigma tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane; Tris Technical Bulletin No. 106B'(PDF). Sigma-Aldrich. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  7. ^Desmarais, WT; et al. (2002). 'The 1.20 Å resolution crystal structure of the aminopeptidase from Aeromonas proteolytica complexed with Tris: A tale of buffer inhibition'. Structure. 10 (8): 1063–1072. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(02)00810-9. PMID12176384.
  8. ^Ghalanbor, Z; et al. (2008). 'Binding of Tris to Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase can affect its starch hydrolysis activity'. Protein Pept. Lett. 15 (2): 212–214. doi:10.2174/092986608783489616. PMID18289113.
  9. ^Markofsky, Sheldon, B. (15 October 2011). 'Nitro Compounds, Aliphatic'. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 24. p. 296. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_401.pub2. ISBN978-3527306732.Missing or empty title= (help)
  10. ^Irvin, R.T.; MacAlister, T.J.; Costerton, J.W. (1981). 'Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane Buffer Modification of Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Permeability'. J. Bacteriol.145 (3): 1397–1403. doi:10.1128/JB.145.3.1397-1403.1981. PMC217144. PMID7009585.
  11. ^https://www.modernatx.com/covid19vaccine-eua/eua-fact-sheet-recipients.pdf
  12. ^Kallet, RH; Jasmer RM; Luce JM; et al. (2000). 'The treatment of acidosis in acute lung injury with tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM)'. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 161 (4): 1149–1153. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.161.4.9906031. PMID10764304.
  13. ^Hoste, EA; Colpaert, K; Vanholder, RC; Lameire, NH; De Waele, JJ; Blot, SI; Colardyn, FA (2005). 'Sodium bicarbonate versus THAM in ICU patients with mild metabolic acidosis'. Journal of Nephrology. 18 (3): 303–7. PMID16013019.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tris&oldid=1032244758'