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Time needed: 30 minutes
Scientists study nature to better understand how it works. They use what they learn to create solutions that help people, animals, and the environment. Scientists use a process called the scientific method to solve problems and learn new things.
One of the first steps of the scientific method is observation. Observation is watching and noticing something using all your senses, especially sight. It’s the start of every experiment and scientific discovery.
To get started, find a sibling, parent, or family member to be your partner.
Part 1: Play “I Spy”
Start by playing a few rounds of I Spy with your partner. Choose an object in the room (or outside) and say, “I spy with my little eye something that is [color].” Then ask your partner to guess the object.
After you play each round, brainstorm what other clues you could have given them to guess each object, apart from its color. For example, you could have shared how big or small it is or what shape it is.
Part 2: Learn about observation and the five senses.
When we play I Spy, we use our eyes to observe an object's color, shape, size, or other characteristics. Observation is looking at something carefully and thinking about what you see. These clues, our observations, help us learn something! Every clue you gave in I Spy is an observation of something you saw, but you can use all your senses to observe.
Now it’s time to name your five senses! Stand up and point to the body part you use to:
Did you point to your eyes to help you see? Your fingers to touch? Ears to hear? Mouth to taste? Nose to smell? All our senses give us different kinds of information. Even if one of your senses isn't as strong as the others, you can still use it to learn a lot about the world!
Part 3: Experience how different animals observe the world.
Sometimes we're surprised at what we learn if we look at the world in a different way.
For the next part of the activity, act out what it’s like to observe the world as different types of animals!
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First pretend you’re an ant. How do you see the world? What do you observe? You might need to get down very low and pretend you're tiny!
What if you were a bird? You’d be able to fly high above the ground. What would you see when you’re flying? What would you see if you were perched on a branch or in your nest?
Finally think of two or three other animals, like a cat, giraffe, or snake. How do they observe the world? Act out what it’s like to be each animal and describe what you’re observing!
Each of these animals observes the world in a very different way. They use their senses to gather information that helps them find food or a place to sleep.
And that’s it! The next time you’re observing something, remember to look at the object from different angles. Go close and look for the tiny details. Then step back and think about how the object you're observing fits into everything around it; this will help you learn something new about your world.
You’ve now completed part of the Daisy Think Like a Citizen Scientist Journey! If you had fun doing this, you might want to learn more about the scientific method, participate in a citizen science project, or take action with the rest of the Daisy Think Like a Citizen Scientist Journey.
Management science (MS) is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other fields. It uses various scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods including mathematical modeling, statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and accurate management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. Management science helps businesses to achieve goals using various scientific methods.
The field was initially an outgrowth of applied mathematics, where early challenges were problems relating to the optimization of systems which could be modeled linearly, i.e., determining the optima (maximum value of profit, assembly line performance, crop yield, bandwidth, etc. or minimum of loss, risk, costs, etc.) of some objective function. Today, management science encompasses any organizational activity for which a problem is structured in mathematical form to generate managerially relevant insights.
Management science is concerned with a number of areas of study:
- Developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems. The models used can often be represented mathematically, but sometimes computer-based, visual or verbal representations are used as well or instead.
- Designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence.
Management science research can be done on three levels:
- The fundamental level lies in three mathematical disciplines: probability, optimization, and dynamical systems theory.
- The modeling level is about building models, analyzing them mathematically, gathering and analyzing data, implementing models on computers, solving them, experimenting with them—all this is part of management science research on the modeling level. This level is mainly instrumental, and driven mainly by statistics and econometrics.
- The application level, just as in any other engineering and economics disciplines, strives to make a practical impact and be a driver for change in the real world.
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The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. The techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups.
The origins of management science can be traced to operations research, which became influential during World War II when the Allied forces recruited scientists of various disciplines to assist with military operations. In these early applications, the scientists used simple mathematical models to make efficient use of limited technologies and resources. The application of these models to the corporate sector became known as management science.
In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as 'the business use of operations research'.
Some of the fields that management science involves include:
- Probability and statistics
- Social network / Transportation forecasting models
as well as many others.
Applications of management science are abundant in industries such as airlines, manufacturing companies, service organizations, military branches, and in government. Management science has contributed insights and solutions to a vast range of problems and issues, including:
- scheduling airlines, both planes and crew
- deciding the appropriate place to site new facilities such as a warehouse or factory
- managing the flow of water from reservoirs
- identifying possible future development paths for parts of the telecommunications industry
- establishing the information needs of health services and appropriate systems to supply them
- identifying and understanding the strategies adopted by companies for their information systems
Management science is also concerned with so-called soft-operational analysis, which concerns methods for strategic planning, strategic decision support, and problem structuring methods (PSM). At this level of abstraction, mathematical modeling and simulation will not suffice. Therefore, since the late 20th century, new non-quantified modelling methods have been developed, including morphological analysis and various forms of influence diagrams.
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|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Management science|
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- ^ abWhat is Management Science?Archived 2009-07-25 at the Wayback Machine Lancaster University, 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- ^What is Management Science Research? University of Cambridge 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- ^What is Management Science?Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine The University of Tennessee, 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- ^Stafford Beer (1967). Management Science: The Business Use of Operations Research
- Kenneth R. Baker, Dean H. Kropp (1985). Management Science: An Introduction to the Use of Decision Models
- Stafford Beer (1967). Management Science: The Business Use of Operations Research
- David Charles Heinze (1982). Management Science: Introductory Concepts and Applications
- Lee J. Krajewski, Howard E. Thompson (1981). 'Management Science: Quantitative Methods in Context'
- Thomas W. Knowles (1989). Management science: Building and Using Models
- Kamlesh Mathur, Daniel Solow (1994). Management Science: The Art of Decision Making
- Laurence J. Moore, Sang M. Lee, Bernard W. Taylor (1993). Management Science
- William Thomas Morris (1968). Management Science: A Bayesian Introduction.
- William E. Pinney, Donald B. McWilliams (1987). Management Science: An Introduction to Quantitative Analysis for Management
- Gerald E. Thompson (1982). Management Science: An Introduction to Modern Quantitative Analysis and Decision Making. New York : McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.